Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) From The Hindu | Date 29.07.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) From The Hindu | Date 29.07.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) From The Hindu | Date 29.07.21

Q1. Consider the following statements about cooperative societies

1. The cooperative societies are protected forms of association under Article 19(1)(c)
2. It is a state list subject in the 7th schedule

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (c)

Explanation:

“Union of India vs Rajendra N. Shah” judgment delivered by the Supreme Court of India struck down the 97th Constitutional Amendment albeit in a limited manner.
The background
1. The 97th Constitutional Amendment came into effect in 2012 and brought about many changes to the legal regime of cooperative societies. The amendment added “cooperative societies” to the protected forms of association under Article 19(1)(c), elevating it to a fundamental right.
2. It also inserted Part IXB in the Constitution which laid down the terms by which cooperative societies would be governed, in more granular detail than was palatable.
3. The Constitution can be amended only by the procedure provided in Article 368. The amendment procedure requires a majority of the total strength of each of the Houses of arliament and a two-thirds majority of those present and voting.
4. A proviso to the Article lists out some articles and chapters of the Constitution, which can be amended only by a special procedure. The special procedure requires that the amendment will also have to be ratified by the legislatures of half of the States.
5. It is precisely on the grounds of violation of this additional requirement that the 97th Constitutional Amendment was challenged.
The cooperative sector
1. The Seventh Schedule of the Constitution confers power on the State legislatures to make laws pertaining to incorporation, regulation and the winding up of cooperative societies.
2. But the Union government has been acquiring incrementally greater control of cooperative societies over the years. Cooperative banks have been brought under the purview of the Reserve Bank of India.
3. The political intent of the Union Government for more active involvement in the cooperative sector is also apparent from the recently established Union Ministry for Cooperation.
4. The court took the example of the 73rd and 74th Amendments which introduced the chapters on panchayats and municipalities, respectively. Those amendments, similar in impact on the legislative power of the States, had been passed by the special procedure involving ratification by State legislatures.
5. The court noted that the procedure had not been followed in this case but clarified that the judgment is confined to the procedural lacuna and does not go into the question of the amendment being violative of the basic structure of the Constitution.

Q2. Consider the following statements about article 279A of the Indian constitution

1. It creates the GST Council
2. It provides for special rates for raising additional resources during natural calamities/disasters

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (c)

Explanation:

Article 279A Constitution of India: Goods and Services Tax Council
(1) The President shall, within sixty days from the date of commencement of the Constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016, by order, constitute a Council to be called the
Goods and Services Tax Council.
(2) The Goods and Services Tax Council shall consist of the following members, namely:—
(a) the Union Finance Minister........................ Chairperson;
(b) the Union Minister of State in charge of Revenue or Finance................. Member;
(c) the Minister in charge of Finance or Taxation or any other Minister nominated by each State Government.................... Members.
(3) The Members of the Goods and Services Tax Council referred to in sub-clause (c) of clause (2) shall, as soon as may be, choose one amongst themselves to be the Vice-Chairperson of the Council for such period as they may decide.
(4) The Goods and Services Tax Council shall make recommendations to the Union and the States on—
(a) the taxes, cesses and surcharges levied by the Union, the States and the local bodies which may be subsumed in the goods and services tax;
(b) the goods and services that may be subjected to, or exempted from the goods and services tax;
(c) model Goods and Services Tax Laws, principles of levy, apportionment of Goods and Services Tax levied on supplies in the course of inter-State trade or commerce under article 269A and the principles that govern the place of supply;
(d) the threshold limit of turnover below which goods and services may be exempted from goods and services tax;
(e) the rates including floor rates with bands of goods and services tax;
(f) any special rate or rates for a specified period, to raise additional resources during any natural calamity or disaster;
(g) special provision with respect to the States of Arunachal Pradesh  Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand; and
(h) any other matter relating to the goods and services tax, as the Council may decide.
(5) The Goods and Services Tax Council shall recommend the date on which the goods and services tax be levied on petroleum crude, highspeed diesel, motor spirit (commonly known as petrol), natural gas and aviation turbine fuel.
(6) While discharging the functions conferred by this article, the Goods and Services Tax Council shall be guided by the need for a harmonised structure of goods and services tax and for the development of a harmonised national market for goods and services.
(7) One-half of the total number of Members of the Goods and Services Tax Council shall constitute the quorum at its meetings.
(8) The Goods and Services Tax Council shall determine the procedure in the performance of its functions.
(9) Every decision of the Goods and Services Tax Council shall be taken at a meeting, by a majority of not less than three-fourths of the weighted votes of the members present and voting, in accordance with the following principles, namely:—
(a) the vote of the Central Government shall have a weightage of onethird of the total votes cast, and
(b) the votes of all the State Governments taken together shall have a weightage of two-thirds of the total votes cast, in that meeting.
(10) No act or proceedings of the Goods and Services Tax Council shall be invalid merely by reason of—
(a) any vacancy in, or any defect in, the constitution of the Council; or
(b) any defect in the appointment of a person as a Member of the Council; or
(c) any procedural irregularity of the Council not affecting the merits of the case.
(11) The Goods and Services Tax Council shall establish a mechanism to adjudicate any dispute —
(a) between the Government of India and one or more States; or
(b) between the Government of India and any State or States on one side and one or more other States on the other side; or
(c) between two or more States, arising out of the recommendations of the Council or implementation thereof.]

Q3. The National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 Proposes

1. A credit transfer system
2. The Higher Education Commission of India (HECI)
3. Four-year undergraduate degree
4. A common university entrance test

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 3 and 4 only
c. 2, 3 and 4
d. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer (d)

Explanation:

On the first anniversary of the National Education Policy (NEP), the Centre plans to officially roll out some initiatives promised in the policy, such as a credit transfer system that will allow multiple entries and exit options in higher education, as well as engineering programmes in regional languages. However, other promised reforms such as the Higher Education Commission of India (HECI), the fouryear undergraduate degree, and the common university entrance test, are not ready yet.
Highlights:
1. The Academic Bank of Credit will be rolled out for students in over 290 top institutions from the current academic year 2021-22 onwards.
2. All institutions in the top 100 of the National Institutional Ranking Framework as well as those who have achieved an A grade under the National Assessment and Accreditation Council will be allowed to participate in the credit transfer system, which will also allow multiple entries and exit options for students, according to senior Education Ministry officials.
3. However, the proposal for four-year undergraduate degrees has run into some opposition, especially from faculty at the premier University of Delhi, and will also have to wait for the National Higher Education Curricular Framework, which is still being prepared, they said.
A mix of subjects
1. Multidisciplinarity is also being encouraged with guidelines to be issued to allow the merger of institutes as well as to give students the choice of taking subjects such as social sciences, music and sports while getting engineering degrees, or even geta minor degree in emerging areas while majoring in a different subject.
2. Although premier institutions such as the Indian Institutes of Technology have balked at the idea of introducing courses in Indian languages, Mr Modi will announce the launch of
engineering degrees in regional languages in about 14 smaller institutions.
3. He will also announce the establishment of the National Digital Education Architecture and National Education Technology Forum.

Q4.Consider the following statements about Geosynchronous satellite orbit

1. This position is a valuable spot for monitoring weather, communications and surveillance
2. In this position, the satellite seems to stay in place over a single longitude

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (c)

Explanation:

Chandrayaan-3 mission likely late next year
The Chandrayaan-3 mission is likely to be launched late next year.
Highlights:
1. Chandrayaan-3 is likely to be launched during the third quarter of 2022, assuming normal workflow henceforth.
2. The Chandrayaan-2 mission, launched in July 2019, was scheduled to be an effort aimed at landing a rover on the Lunar South Pole. It was sent aboard the country’s most powerful
geosynchronous launch vehicle, the GSLV-Mk 3.
3. However, the lander Vikram, instead of a controlled landing, ended up crash-landing on September 7, 2019, and stymied the effort.
A geosynchronous orbit
It is a high Earth orbit that allows satellites to match Earth's rotation. Located at 22,236 miles (35,786 kilometres) above Earth's equator, this position is a valuable spot for monitoring weather, communications and surveillance.
Because the satellite orbits at the same speed that the Earth is turning, the satellite seems to stay in place over a single longitude, though it may drift north to south.
Satellites are designed to orbit Earth in one of three basic orbits defined by their distance from the planet: low Earth orbit, medium Earth orbit or high Earth orbit. The higher a satellite is above Earth (or any other world for that matter), the slower it moves. This is because of the effect of Earth's gravity; it pulls more strongly at satellites that are closer to its centre than satellites that are farther away.
So a satellite at low Earth orbit — such as the International Space Station, at roughly 250 miles (400 km) — will move over the surface, seeing different regions at different times of the day. Those at medium Earth orbit (between about 2,000 and 35,780 km, or 1,242 and 22,232 miles) move more slowly, allowing for more detailed studies of a region. At geosynchronous orbit, however, the orbital period of the satellite matches the orbit of the Earth (roughly 24 hours), and the satellite appears virtually still over one spot; it stays at the same longitude, but its orbit may be tilted or inclined, a few degrees north or south.