Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) From The Hindu | Date 28.07.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) From The Hindu | Date 28.07.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) From The Hindu | Date 28.07.21

Q1. Recently, the Harappan city of Dholavira was named the 40th Indian site on UNESCO’s World Heritage list. Consider the following statements in this regard
1. The walls in the city were made of mud bricks like in many other Harappan sites
2. Dholavira used to trade with the Mesopotamians
3. Severe aridity due to climate change is considered as one of the reasons for the decline of Dholavira

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 1 only
c. 2 and 3 only
d. 1, 2 and 3

Answer (c)

Explanation:

Dholavira on UNESCO World Heritage list

a) The Harappan city of Dholavira, in present-day Gujarat, was named the 40th Indian site on UNESCO’s World Heritage list. UNESCO’s announcement came just days after another site, Ramappa Temple in Telangana, was admitted to the list.
b)  The IVC acropolis is located on a hillock near present-day Dholavira village in Kutch district, from which it gets its name. It was discovered in 1968 by archaeologist Jagat Pati Joshi.

Highlights:

1. The ancient city of Dholavira is one of the most remarkable and well-preserved urban settlements in South Asia dating from the 3rd to mid-2nd millennium BCE (Before Common Era).
2. The ancient city was a commercial and manufacturing hub for about 1,500 years before its decline and eventual ruin in 1500 BC.
3. Discovered in 1968, the site is set apart by its unique characteristics, such as its water management system, multilayered defensive mechanisms, extensive use of stone in construction and special burial structures.
4. A range of artefacts of copper, shell, stone, jewellery, terracotta and ivory had been found at the site. The two newly inscribed World Heritage Sites offer great insight into the knowledge and ways of life of earlier societies, customs, and communities.
5. Located in the Kutch district, Dholavira is the larger of the two most remarkable excavations of the Indus Valley Civilisation dating back to about 4,500 years ago.

Conservation
1. Though it was excavated recently, the Dholavira site has remained free from encroachment in historical periods as well as in the modern era. Bisht says the UNESCO listing became possible because the site was found free from any kind of encroachment, a rarity in India.
2. In its release, UNESCO termed Dholavira as one of the most remarkable and well-preserved urban settlements in South Asia dating from the 3rd to mid-2nd millennium BCE (Before Common Era).

Distinct features
1. After Mohen-jo-Daro, Ganweriwala and Harappa in Pakistan and Rakhigarhi in Haryana of India, Dholavira is the fifth largest metropolis of IVC. 
2. The site has a fortified citadel, a middle town and a lower town with walls made of sandstone or limestone instead of mud bricks in many other Harappan sites.
3. Archaeologist Bisht cites a cascading series of water reservoirs, outer fortification, two multi-purpose grounds — one of which was used for festivities and as a marketplace — nine gates with unique designs, and funerary architecture featuring tumulus — hemispherical structures like the Buddhist Stupas— as some of the unique features of the Dholavira site.
4. He says that one finds the origin of the Buddhist Stupas in memorials in Dholavira.
5. While unlike graves at other IVC sites, no mortal remains of humans have been discovered at Dholavira. Bisht says memorials that contain no bones or ashes but offerings of precious stones, etc. add a new dimension to the personality of the Harappans.

Rise and fall of Dholavira
1. Remains of a copper smelter indicate of Harappans, who lived in Dholavira, knew metallurgy. It is believed that traders of Dholavira used to source copper ore from present-day Rajasthan and Oman and UAE and export finished products.
2. It was also a hub of manufacturing jewellery made of shells and semi-precious stones, like agate and used to export timber.
3. Bisht says that such beads peculiar to the Harappan workmanship have been found in the royal graves of Mesopotamia, indicating Dholavira used to trade with the Mesopotamians. Its decline also coincided with the collapse of Mesopotamia, indicating the integration of economies.
4. Harappans, who were maritime people, lost a huge market, affecting the local mining, manufacturing, marketing and export businesses once Mesopotamia fell.
5. He further says that from 2000 BC, Dholavira entered a phase of severe aridity due to climate change and rivers like Saraswati drying up. Because of a drought-like situation, people started migrating toward the Ganges valley or towards south Gujarat and further beyond in Maharashtra.
6. In those times, Bisht says, the Great Rann of Kutch, which surrounds the Khadir island on which Dholavira is located, used to be navigable, but the sea receded gradually and the Rann became a mudflat.

Other Harappan sites in Gujarat
1. Before Dholavira was excavated, Lothal, in Saragwala village on the bank of Sabarmati in Dholka taluka of Ahmedabad district, was the most prominent site of IVC in Gujarat.
2. It was excavated between 1955 and 1960 and was discovered to be an important port city of the ancient civilisation, with structures made of mud bricks.

Q2. Which of the following state was known as Lushai Hills District when it was part of the Assam?

a. Manipur
b. Mizoram
c. Meghalaya
d. Nagaland

Answer (b)

Explanation:

Assam-Mizoram Boundary Conflict
Following a dangerous and avoidable escalation of an otherwise dormant border dispute, five policemen and a civilian from Assam were killed in the Mizo border town of Vairengte in clashes between police from the State and their counterparts in Mizoram.
Highlights:

1. The sequence of events, beginning October 2020, suggests that what began as skirmishes between residents close to the disputed border between Assam’s Cachar and Mizoram’s Kolasib districts has snowballed into a violent confrontation between police and residents.
2. The events point to a failure of the constitutional machinery, empowered to de-escalate tensions at the border. The presence of central paramilitary forces should have helped maintain the peace, but it is curiously not the case.
3. Both Chief Ministers have been exchanging allegations on Twitter, seeking the intervention of Union Home Minister Amit Shah, and using videos to tell a story that suited their version of the events — a farcical means of communication.
4. This also occurred just days after both Chief Ministers (along with others) met with Mr Shah to discuss the resolution of interState border disputes.
The bane of the North-eastern States
1. Sectarian tribalism has been the bane of the North-eastern States, with underdevelopment acting as a catalyst in complicating knotty issues over land and other issues in the region.
2. There is no sure-shot and quick solution possible to the border disputes between various States without a spirit of giving and take and a civic engagement brokered by the Union government.
3. A resort to one-upmanship will only prolong the disputes and harden stances.
The Home Ministry must ensure that the Assam-Mizoram border situation is the first subject to de-escalation and steps taken to return to the status quo that prevailed before the skirmishes began in October 2020 with the cooperation of the respective States.

What is the demarcated boundary?
1. Mizoram borders Assam’s Barak Valley. The boundary between the two states, which runs 165 km today, has a history dating back to the time when Mizoram was a district of Assam and known as Lushai Hills. Boundary demarcations in 1875 and 1933, particularly the second one, are at the heart of the dispute.
2. The 1875 demarcation, notified on August 20 that year, derived from the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation (BEFR) Act, 1873. It differentiated Lushai Hills from the plains of Cachar in Assam’s Barak Valley. This was done in consultation with Mizo chiefs, and it became the basis for the Inner Line Reserve Forest demarcation in the Gazette two years later.
3. The 1933 demarcation marks a boundary between Lushai Hills and Manipur, beginning at the tri-junction of Lushai Hills, Cachar district and Manipur. The Mizos do not accept this demarcation on the ground that their chiefs were not consulted this time.
Which is boundary does Mizoram find acceptable?
According to Mizo leaders, the only acceptable boundary is the Inner Line of 1875 on the southern frontier of Cachar, notified as per the BEFR Act. (This was subsequently revised in 1878 as it sought to demarcate the Lushai Hills frontier from the plains of Assam.)
When did the dispute become so bitter?
The dispute has been simmering since Mizoram became a Union Territory in 1972 and then a state in the 1980s. The two states signed an agreement that the status quo should be maintained at no man’s land set up in the boundaries. While alleged transgressions have often happened over the decades, skirmishes have happened very frequently in recent months.
What are the other border disputes in the region?
1. Assam, which shares its boundary with all other Northeast states — and from which states such as Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram were carved out — has been involved in disputes with several of its neighbours.
2. Assam and Nagaland share has a 500-km boundary. Violent conflicts, some leading to deaths, have taken place in several phases since 1965.
3. With Arunachal Pradesh, Assam shares an around 800-km boundary. Here, the first clashes were reported in 1992. These issues are now being heard in the Supreme Court.
4. With Meghalaya, Assam shares a boundary of 884 km. There has been a series of recent flare-ups here, too. The Meghalaya government claims it has 12 areas of disputes with Assam.

Q3. Which of the following states share a border with Asssam?

1. West Bengal
2. Tripura
3. Sikkim
4. Nagaland
Select the correct answer from the codes given below
a. 2 and 4 only
b. 1, 2 and 4 only
c. 2, 3 and 4
d. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer (b)

Explanation:

Q4. World Economic Outlook (WEO) report is released by

a. The International Monetary Fund (IMF)
b. The World Bank
c. The World Economic Forum
d. The Asian Development Bank

Answer (a)

Explanation:

IMF cuts emerging Asia, India growth forecasts
The International Monetary Fund cut this year’s economic growth forecast for emerging Asia, including India, as a spike in coronavirus cases from new variants and slow vaccinations cloud the region’s recovery prospects.
Highlights:
1. The downgrade, which contrasted with an upward revision in the IMF’s forecast for advanced nations, highlights the divergence emerging across countries on the pace of recovery from the pandemic’s hit.
2. In an update to its World Economic Outlook (WEO), the IMF forecast emerging Asia will grow 7.5% this year, down 1.1 percentage points from its projection.
3. That was a much bigger downgrade than a 0.4 point mark-down for emerging economies across the globe.

Q5. One finds the origin of the Buddhist Stupas in memorials in this site of the Harappan Civilization. The site is

a. Rakhigarhi
b. Dholavira
c. Lothal
d. Mohenjo Daro

Answer (b)

Explanation:

Distinct features
1. After Mohen-jo-Daro, Ganweriwala and Harappa in Pakistan and Rakhigarhi in Haryana of India, Dholavira is the fifth largest metropolis of IVC.
2. The site has a fortified citadel, a middle town and a lower town with walls made of sandstone or limestone instead of mud bricks in many other Harappan sites.
3. Archaeologist Bisht cites a cascading series of water reservoirs, outer fortification, two multi-purpose grounds — one of which was used for festivities and as a marketplace — nine gates with unique designs, and funerary architecture featuring tumulus — hemispherical structures like the Buddhist Stupas— as some of the unique features of the Dholavira site.
4. He says that one finds the origin of the Buddhist Stupas in memorials in Dholavira.
5. While unlike graves at other IVC sites, no mortal remains of humans have been discovered at Dholavira. Bisht says memorials that contain no bones or ashes but offerings of precious stones, etc. add a new dimension to the personality of the Harappans.