Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) From The Hindu | Date 10.08.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) From The Hindu | Date 10.08.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) From The Hindu | Date 10.08.21

Q1. Arrange the following locations in India in the east to west order

1. Galwan Valley
2. Doklam Plateau
3. Kalapani near Lipulekh pass

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

a. 1, 2, 3
b. 2, 3, 1
c. 1, 3, 2
d. 2, 1, 3

Answer (b)

Explanation:

The road ahead from Gogra While disengagement happens, a long-lasting solution along the LAC remains a challenge Disengagement
1. After the talks on July 31, India and China have taken one more step towards restoring peace and normalcy on the LAC by disengaging at Gogra. It is, however, only one step, and the road ahead towards returning to the status quo of April 2020, before the tensions of last summer upended years of a carefully managed even if uneasy peace along the LAC, remains uncertain.
2. It has taken 12 rounds of military-level talks to see both sides disengage and put in place buffer zones in the Galwan Valley, the site of the June 2020 clash that marked the worst violence since 1967, Pangong Lake, and now Patrolling Point 17 in Gogra.
3. The disengagement process at PP17 took place on August 4 and 5, with a return to permanent bases. The next round of talks will discuss PP15 in Hot Springs. Demchok, where China has transgressed in relatively smaller numbers than the deployments seen in Pangong Lake, also remains unresolved.
4. Beijing has appeared unwilling to discuss the strategically significant Depsang plains, where the Chinese side has been blocking Indian patrols. The buffer zone model, where both sides
temporarily cease patrolling in disputed areas, has appeared to work so far in keeping the peace.
5. It is, however, only a temporary measure, and one that India should not accept as permanent as it would prevent India from enforcing its territorial claims and favour the PLA, which can deploy faster in larger numbers owing to the more favourable terrain and better logistics.
Long term Solutions:
1. The next step will be full de-escalation and a withdrawal of some of the new forward deployments that have come up close to the LAC. India has signalled that it is prepared for the long haul; its message: relations cannot return to normal without full restoration of normalcy on the borders.
2. While the strategic motivations of China’s border deployments last year are not clear, the tactical objectives are not difficult to ascertain. Since the 2017 Doklam crisis, China has consistently stepped up building new permanent airbases and air defence units closer to the LAC, with at least 13 new positions coming up since then, according to an analysis of satellite images from Stratfor.
3. India has been moving to rapidly upgrade its own infrastructure to close the gap. The result is an entirely changed security dynamic along the LAC. There is a need to come up urgently with new protocols and confidence-building measures, as both sides gradually resume patrolling in the buffer zones.
4. The multiple transgressions by China and the violence of last year have set back years of efforts to carefully manage the borders and thrown into doubt whether the four agreements regulating the behaviour of both sides still remain valid.
5. While the recent moves towards restoring the peace are certainly welcome, finding a more long-lasting solution to ensure peace along the LAC will present a taller challenge.
The Kalapani dispute between Nepal and India India inaugurated the Darchula-Lipulekh pass link road on 8 May 2020 cutting across the disputed Kalapani area which is used by the Indian pilgrims to Kailash Mansarovar. The Kalapani dispute between Nepal and India was aroused when India publishes a revised political map in November 2019 that shows the newly created Union Territories of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh. Both  the countries laid claim to Kalapani. The map showed Kalapani as part of Pithoragarh. As a result, Nepal protested immediately and drew attention to the issue.

Location of Kalapani or where is it located?

Kalapani is located in the easternmost corner of Uttarakhand's Pithoragarh district. It shared a border on the north with the Tibet Autonomous Region of China and Nepal in the east and south. The region is placed in between Limpiyadhura, Lipulekh, and Kalapani trijunction between Nepal-India and China (Tibet). At an altitude of 3600m, it is located on the banks of the river Kali. The territories of Kalapani lies at the eastern border of Uttarakhand in India and Nepal’s Sudurpashchim Pradesh in the West.

The area is under whose control?
It is under the control of India but Nepal claims the region due to historical and cartographic reasons.
What is the reason behind the dispute?
Kalapani region derives its name from the Kali river. Nepal claims the region as the river became the marker of the boundary of the kingdom Nepal following the Treaty of Sugauli. The treaty of Sugauli was signed between the Gurkha rulers of Kathmandu and the East India Company after the Gurkha War/Anglo-Nepal War during 1814-16. In 1816, the treaty was ratified.
 As per the treaty, the regions of Kumaon-Garhwal in the west and Sikkim in the east were lost by Nepal.
 As per Article 5, the King of Nepal gave up his claims over the region west of the river Kali which originated in the High Himalayas and flows into the great plains of the Indian subcontinent.
 Also according to the treaty, the rulers of the British recognised the right of Nepal's to the region that fell to the east of the Kali river.
History of the origin of the dispute
 As per the experts of Nepal, the east of the Kali river should begin at the source of the river. And the source according to them is the mountains near Limpiyadhura. It is higher in altitude than the rest of the river's flow.
 And Nepal claims that the landmass that is in the high mountains falls to the east of the entire stretch starting from Limpiyadhura downwards in theirs.
 According to India, the border starts at Kalapani and India says that is where the river begins. As per the Indian government, the ridgeline located towards the east of Kalapani territory is a part of the Indian Union. The Sugauli treaty mentions nothing about this ridgeline.
 The main reason behind the dispute is the varying interpretation of the origin of the river and its different tributaries that slice via mountains.
 Nepal claims the territory east of the Kali that is based on the Limpiyadhura origin and India says that the river actually takes the name Kali near Kalapani.
The Kalapani area is controlled by the Indo-Tibetan Police and nearby areas since the Indo-China war of 1962.

Q2. The treaty of Sugauli was signed between

a. The East India Company and Maratha
b. The East India Company and Sikh
c. The East India Company and Mysore
d. The East India Company and Gurkha

Answer (d)

Explanation:

Kalapani region derives its name from the Kali river. Nepal claims the region as the river became the marker of the boundary of the kingdom Nepal following the Treaty of Sugauli. The treaty of Sugauli was signed between the Gurkha rulers of Kathmandu and the East India Company after the Gurkha War/Anglo-Nepal War during 1814-16. In 1816, the treaty
was ratified.
 As per the treaty, the regions of Kumaon-Garhwal in the west and Sikkim in the east were lost by Nepal.
 As per Article 5, the King of Nepal gave up his claims over the region west of the river Kali which originated in the High Himalayas and flows into the great plains of the Indian subcontinent.
 Also according to the treaty, the rulers of the British recognised the right of Nepal's to the region that fell to the east of the Kali river.

Q3. Sixth Assessment Report, “Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis” is released by

a. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
b. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
c. The World Meteorological Organization
d. The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development

Answer (a)

Explanation:

The Indian Ocean is warming at a higher rate than other oceans, said the latest report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), with scientists warning that India will witness increased heatwaves and flooding, which will be irreversible effects of climate change.
Highlights:
The current overall global warming trends are likely to lead to an increase in annual mean precipitation over India, with more severe rain expected over southern India in the coming decades. The authors of the IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Report, “Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis”, said the warming of the ocean would lead to a rise in sea levels, leading to frequent and severe coastal flooding in low-level areas.

Q4. Consider the following statements

1. India is the leading exporter of edible oils
2. India is aiming at oil palm cultivation in north-eastern India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (b)

Explanation:

₹11,000 crores for self-sufficiency in edible oil production: PM
1. The Centre will spend ₹11,000 crores on a new mission to ensure self-sufficiency in edible oil production at a time when India’s dependence on expensive imports has driven retail oil prices to new highs, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said.
2. This financial outlay for the National Mission on Edible Oil-Oil Palm (NMEO-OP) will be over a five-year period, Agriculture Ministry officials later said.
3. Today, when India is being recognised as a major agricultural exporting country, then it is not appropriate for us to depend on imports for our edible oil needs. The share of imported palm oil is more than 55%.
4. The thousands of crores that we have to give to others abroad to buy edible oil should be given to the farmers of the country only. PM named north-eastern India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands as prime locations for oil palm cultivation.
Rise in yield
1. The NMEO-OP’s predecessor was the National Mission on Oil Seeds and Oil Palm, which was launched at the fag end of the UPA government’s tenure and later merged with the National Food Security Mission.
2. Laying out its achievements in May 2020, the Agriculture Ministry said oilseed production had grown 35% from 27.5 million tonnes in 2014-15 to 37.3 million tonnes by 2020-21. Although oilseed acreage rose only 8.6% over that six-year period, yields rose more
than 20%.