Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) From The Hindu | Date 07.09.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) From The Hindu | Date 07.09.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) From The Hindu | Date 07.09.21

Q1. The Doctrine of Pith and Substance is related to

a. Fundamental rights
b. Pre constitutional laws
c. Three Lists under article 246
d. Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)

Answer (d)

Explanation:

The Spirit of federalism lies in consultation
Crux: Unilateral legislation without taking States into confidence will see more protests on the streets
The doctrine of “pith and substance”:
1. Recently, various State governments raised concerns about Central unilateralism in the enactment of critical laws on subjects in the Concurrent List of the Seventh Schedule of the
Constitution.
2. It is not in the essence of federalism for the Union government to legislate unilaterally, avoiding discussions with the States on the subjects in the Concurrent List.
3. The States and the Legislative Assemblies standing up for their rights assumes significance in the wake of the Union government introducing a number of laws without taking the States into confidence, thereby undermining the federal principles.
4. Around a year back, Parliament passed the farm laws without consulting the States. The laws, essentially related to Entry 14 (agriculture clause) belonging to the State List, were purportedly passed by Parliament citing Entry 33 (trade and commerce clause) in the Concurrent List.
5. According to various decisions of the Supreme Court, beginning from the State of Bombay vs F.N. Balsara case, if an enactment falls within one of the matters assigned to the State List and reconciliation is not possible with an entry in the Concurrent or Union List after employing the doctrine of “pith and substance”, the legislative domain of the State Legislature must prevail.
6. The farm laws were passed by Parliament even as it does not have legislative competence to deal with agriculture. The lack of consultation in a matter that intrinsically deals with millions of farmers also led to massive protests that, incidentally, still continue in streets across India.
The Doctrine of Pith and Substance: The power granted to legislatures to formulate a statute under three lists of the seventh schedule in the Constitution of India is bound to overlap at certain points but this can’t be used as a reason to make the whole statute null and void. Therefore, incidental effects or encroachments are permissible under Constitutional Law while determining the competence of particular legislatures to the extent of subject matters in the three lists is in question. This rule is known as the Doctrine of Pith and Substance.
The salient features of the Doctrine of Pith and Substance are as given below:
 It becomes applicable in circumstances when the subject matter of one list is in conflict with the subject matter of another list.
 The reason behind its adoption is to avoid any limitation on the powers of legislatures by declaring every other enactment invalid basis that it encroaches upon another law.
 It is meant to determine the true nature and character of the subject and decide under which head of the list it falls.
 The Doctrine provides a degree of flexibility on the powers of the state to make a law that involves the subject of the Union List.

Q2. Which of the following countries is/are members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)?

1. Afghanistan
2. China
3. Russia
4. India
5. Pakistan

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

a. 1 and 4 only
b. 1, 2 and 3 only
c. 2, 3 and 4 only
d. 2, 3, 4 and 5

Answer (d)

Explanation:

Modi to attend BRICS, SCO, Quad meets in Sept.
Afghan situation likely to dominate agenda amid growing polarisation between the Russia-China bloc, and the U.S. and its allies
Diplomacy amid Chaos and Polarization:
1. Prime Minister Narendra Modi will chair a meeting of BRICS leaders including Chinese President Xi Jinping, Russian President Vladimir Putin and leaders of Brazil and South Africa, the first in a series of summit-level meetings he is expected to attend in September that will be dominated by discussions on the situation in Afghanistan.
2. The PM will also attend via video conference the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) Heads of Government Meeting being held in Dushanbe.
3. Later he is expected to travel later this month to the U.S., to meet U.S. President Joseph Biden and address the UN General Assembly.
4. The meetings will see Mr Modi straddle both sides of views on the future of Afghanistan, given the growing polarisation between the Russia-China bloc, and the U.S. and its allies on engaging the new Taliban regime.
5. The SCO meeting in Tajikistan will see a much greater focus on Afghanistan, given that it comprises regional countries Russia, China, Central Asian nations and Pakistan, and will include a special SCO Contact group meeting.

Q3. In the last six months, the lives of these rural women in Bihar have changed dramatically with the Sukhet model that allows them to get their LPG cylinders refilled every two months in exchange for cow dung and farmyard waste. Which of the following are benefits of following the Sukhet model?

1. It ensures a pollution-free environment at home
2. Waste disposal
3. Assistance for LPG cylinders
4. Organic fertiliser to the local farmers

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

a. 1 and 4 only
b. 1, 2 and 3 only
c. 2, 3 and 4 only
d. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer (d)

Explanation:

Sukhet’s villagers trade waste for wellness, get free LPG refills Villagers who provide 20 kg of cow dung and farmyard waste a day for vermicomposting receive free fuel in a novel project in the Madhubani district of Bihar
The Sukhet model: Four fold benefits
1. In the last six months, the lives of these rural women have changed dramatically with the Sukhet model that allows them to get their LPG cylinders refilled every two months in exchange for cow dung and farmyard waste.
2. The unique programme, which was lauded by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in his latest episode of ‘Mann ki Baat’ on August 29, offers four-fold benefit to the villagers: it ensures a pollution-free environment at home, waste disposal, monetary assistance for LPG cylinders and availability of organic fertiliser to the local farmers.

Q4. Which of the following is/are correctly matched?

Region/Community  State
1 Karbi Anglong  Assam
2 Gond Madhya Pradesh
3 Lushai Hills Mizoram

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 2 and 3 only
c. 1 and 3 only
d. 1, 2 and 3

Answer (d)

Explanation:

Becoming stakeholders: Karbi Anglong and Northeast Insurgency
1. The tripartite agreement signed by the Centre, five insurgent groups active in Karbi Anglong, and the Assam government, marks the culmination of an extended process of negotiation to end insurgency in the region.
2. According to the Memorandum of Settlement, greater autonomy will be devolved to the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council; the identity, language, culture of Karbi people will be protected; and more focused development will be carried out in the Council area. The government will also consider notifying Karbi language as the official language of the Council.

The Lushai Hills are a mountain range in Mizoram and Manipur, India. The range is part of the Patkai range system and its highest point is 2,157 m high Phawngpui, also known as 'Blue Mountain'.

Q5. The mission Inspiration4 involves circling the Earth for three days and then splashing down into the Atlantic Ocean. Inspiration4 will orbit the Earth at 575km, higher than the International Space Station (408km) and the Hubble space telescope (547km). It is a mission of

a. NASA
b. European Space Agency (ESA)
c. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)
d. SpaceX

Answer (d)

Explanation:

What is Inspiration4, SpaceX’s first all-civilian space mission?
 The mission involves circling the Earth for three days and then splashing down into the Atlantic Ocean. Inspiration4 will orbit the Earth at 575km, higher than the International Space Station (408km) and the Hubble space telescope (547km).
 This will be the farthest distance travelled by a crewed mission since 2009, when astronauts last went to repair the Hubble.