Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) From The Hindu | Date 06.09.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) From The Hindu | Date 06.09.21

Daily Current Affairs (MCQ) From The Hindu | Date 06.09.21

Q1. Which of the following is/are a zoonotic viral disease?

1. Nipah
2. COVID-19
3. Ebola

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 2 and 3 only
c. 1 and 3 only
d. 1, 2 and 3

Answer (c)

Explanation:

Ebola is a deadly zoonotic disease that is thought to have originated in fruit bats, which then contaminated other animals before the virus reached humans.
The pandemic of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV2 has been classified as a zoonotic disease.
12-year-old dies as Nipah reappears in Kozhikode
1. After a gap of over three years, a case of the zoonotic Nipah virus infection was reported in the Kozhikode district of Kerala. Kozhikode is reporting the deadly infection for the second time in three years.
2. The virus is transmitted to people from animals and can also be passed on through contaminated food or directly from person to person. Fruit bats are considered to be a natural reservoir of the virus. Symptoms include acute encephalitis and respiratory illnesses.

Q2. Consider the following statements about the IUCN Green Status of Species

1. It will be the first global standard for assessing species recovery and measuring conservation impacts
2. The new framework will classify species into nine recovery categories, and measure the impact of past and present conservation efforts

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (c)

Explanation:

‘28% of 1,38,000 assessed species face extinction
1. Some 28% of the 1,38,374 species assessed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) for its survival watchlist are now at high risk of vanishing forever, the global conservation body said on Saturday.
2. Habitat loss, overexploitation and illegal trade have hammered global wildlife populations for decades, and climate change is now kicking in as a direct threat as well, the IUCN reported.
3. Komodo dragons, the largest living lizards, which are found only in the World Heritage-listed Komodo National Park and neighbouring Flores, were listed as “endangered”.
4. Some 37% of the 1,200 shark and ray species assessed by experts are directly threatened by extinction, a third more than only seven years ago.
5. The IUCN officially launched its “green status” — the first global standard for assessing species recovery and measuring conservation impacts. It makes the invisible work of conservation visible.
The IUCN Green Status of Species
 The IUCN will soon be launching the IUCN Green Status of Species, a new assessment tool that will illuminate the ecological functionality of species within their ranges, and also show how much a species has recovered due to conservation efforts.
 The new framework will classify species into nine recovery categories, and measure the impact of past and present conservation efforts and recovery potential in the short term and
long term.
 A team of more than 200 international researchers presented preliminary Green Status assessments for 181 species in a new paper.
 The IUCN Green Status for Species will officially launch online at the start of the IUCN World Conservation Congress in September.

Q3. Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and Sulawesi islands are part of

a. Indonesia
b. Malaysia
c. Thailand
d. Philippines

Answer (a)

Explanation:

The largest islands are Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), Sulawesi, and the Indonesian part of New Guinea (known as Papua or Irian Jaya). Islands are mountainous with dense rain forests, and some have active volcanoes. Most of the smaller islands belong to larger groups, like the Moluccas (Spice Islands).

Q4. Consider the following statements about the PUSA Decomposers

1. It is a fungi based decomposer solution
2. It takes 45 days to decompose crop residue

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (a)

Explanation:

Punjab breathes innovation, finds gainful uses for paddy stubble
1. Close to autumn every year, stubble burning returns to worsen air pollution across India’s northern plains.
2. The Punjab government is working to present “paddy straw” as a resource that creates value and wealth for industry and the farming community, rather than being a waste product of paddy cultivation.
3. The government recently decided to permit certain categories of industries to install paddy straw-fired boilers, for which the industries will be given fiscal incentives. The industries included in this scheme are sugar mills, pulp and paper mills, besides any industry having boiler installation with a steam-generating capacity of more than 25 tonnes per hour (TPH).
Fiscal incentives
1. To spur the use of straw, the government has decided to provide cumulative fiscal incentives of ₹25 crores to the first 50 existing industries on a ‘first-come, first-served basis.
2. Besides, the government has also approved non-fiscal incentives to industries in terms of the availability of ‘panchayat’ land for storage of paddy straw with a lease agreement of up to 33 years.
3. Despite the ban on stubble burning and action against those burning crop residue under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, farmers continue to resort to the practice, claiming a lack of alternatives.
PUSA Decomposers:
 The decomposers are in the form of capsules made by extracting fungi strains that help the paddy straw to decompose at a much faster rate than usual. The fungi helps to produce the essential enzymes for the degradation process.
 It involves making a liquid formulation using decomposer capsules and fermenting it over 8-10 days and then spraying the mixture on fields with crop stubble to ensure speedy biodecomposition of the stubble.
 It takes around 20 days for the degradation process to be completed. Under usual circumstances, shredded and watered paddy straw, which is mixed with soil, takes at least 45 days to decompose. It does not give enough time for farmers to prepare fields for the wheat crop on time.
 The decomposer improves the fertility and productivity of the soil as the stubble works as manure and compost for the crops and lesser fertiliser consumption is required in the future
 The soil loses its richness due to stubble burning and it also destroys the useful bacteria and fungi in the soil, apart from causing harm to the environment.

Q5. Consider the following statements

1. The soil loses its richness due to stubble burning and it also destroys the useful bacteria and fungi in the soil
2. Stubble burning is banned under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer (c)

Explanation:

Punjab breathes innovation, finds gainful uses for paddy stubble
1. Close to autumn every year, stubble burning returns to worsen air pollution across India’s northern plains.
2. The Punjab government is working to present “paddy straw” as a resource that creates value and wealth for industry and the farming community, rather than being a waste product of paddy cultivation.
3. The government recently decided to permit certain categories of industries to install paddy straw-fired boilers, for which the industries will be given fiscal incentives. The industries included in this scheme are sugar mills, pulp and paper mills, besides any industry having boiler installation with a steam-generating capacity of more than 25 tonnes per hour (TPH).
Fiscal incentives
4. To spur the use of straw, the government has decided to provide cumulative fiscal incentives of ₹25 crores to the first 50 existing industries on a ‘first-come, first-served basis.
5. Besides, the government has also approved non-fiscal incentives to industries in terms of the availability of ‘panchayat’ land for storage of paddy straw with a lease agreement of up to 33 years.
6. Despite the ban on stubble burning and action against those burning crop residue under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, farmers continue to resort to the practice, claiming a lack of alternatives.
PUSA Decomposers:
 The decomposers are in the form of capsules made by extracting fungi strains that help the paddy straw to decompose at a much faster rate than usual. The fungi helps to produce the essential enzymes for the degradation process.
 It involves making a liquid formulation using decomposer capsules and fermenting it over 8-10 days and then spraying the mixture on fields with crop stubble to ensure speedy biodecomposition of the stubble.
 It takes around 20 days for the degradation process to be completed. Under usual circumstances, shredded and watered paddy straw, which is mixed with soil, takes at least 45 days to decompose. It does not give enough time for farmers to prepare fields for the wheat crop on time.
 The decomposer improves the fertility and productivity of the soil as the stubble works as manure and compost for the crops and lesser fertiliser consumption is required in the future
 The soil loses its richness due to stubble burning and it also destroys the useful bacteria and fungi in the soil, apart from causing harm to the environment.